I would like to give you some overview of Kapita Selekta Lecture which I took in my 2nd semester. Some review of the material would be posted in the next 7 chapter of this blog. First post coming from Suharyanto, PhD lecture.
Indonesia is an archipelagic country that has a diverse population density as well. Kalimantan as the largest island in Indonesia only has 6 % of the population of the total population in Indonesia. Unlike Java island, which has the largest population size when compared to six other islands in Indonesia. Moslem is a religion with the largest population in Indonesia even in the world. Poverty is always decreasing every year. Most Indonesian society education is in junior level upwards.
General Problems : Case of Citarum River Basin
Uncontrolled population growth increased exploitation of space and water resources. This increase is also the influence of the high level of people migration. therefore the need for remedial action on the critical areas are opened for industrial and residential areas. Critical areas in question are areas prone to floods, droughts, declining water quality, environmental damage that can degrade the quality of human life and the surrounding environment.
Environmental pollution does not only occur on land development and housing industry, but also holistic on the body of water from upstream, midstream and downstream. On the upstream side, there is the problem of decline in function areas protected water catchments both forest and non-forest, housing construction in the upstream without clearly understanding planning, agriculture conservation which do not pay attention, the high rate of erosion and sedimentation, in addition to the pollution due to high nutrient contained in agricultural waste water. The river is also polluted by industrial and domestic waste.
In the midstream, a river is polluted by industrial and business activities. Taking example in the Citarum River, the high population growth increases the volume of domestic waste which is disposed of without treatment and waste directly into the river. Business activities (fish netting) on Saguling, Cirata and Jatiluhur also increases the waste generated by the fish so as to accelerate the silting of dams. In the downstream, the conversion of agricultural land into housing due to their development are not good in planning. In addition, there was erosion in coastal areas and the lack of flood control efforts on the estuary.
People in rural areas get water from wells or rivers that are inferior quality for consumption, bathing and washing. Water used for consumption, cooked in a simple regardless of the quality of water used (physically own good). In addition, they rely on water from communal companies or small businesses that provide clean water supply to the community. Indonesian society to pay attention to personal hygiene and use the water to bathe two times a day.
Indonesia has not been able to achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) due in 2013, less than 50% of the population do not get access to clean water than the target of 68.8%. The provision of clean water in Indonesia is still quite low. Only 15% of people who get water directly from the main pipe taps. When consumers increases, governments are faced with an increase in the quantity of stagnant infrastructure that hampered access to clean water. Finally, the people get their water from wells in which they manage themselves. PDAM as water managers in each region in Indonesia, has a lower level of service. The small value of tariff making few taps can not bear the cost of production. Bottled water became famous in locations with difficult access. Shortages of water from taps at several locations to encourage the emergence of the source – the source of fresh water for daily use. In addition to groundwater, other sources of clean water is bottled drinking water, because of practicality for direct consumption. In addition, the other major source is rainwater, rivers, and lakes.
Waste and Wastewater Treatment
PDAM treating raw water using several chemical physics processes from pre sedimentation, coagulation, flocculation, sedimentation and filtration. Water that has been processed, distributed through a piping network to the public. Problems faced taps today is permsalahan quality, quantity and continuity. People who are hard to get water from the taps, drawing water from deep wells and surface water of poor quality. To a problem of quantity, water resources are taken from the groundwater and surface water will be reduced during the dry season. Some locations also could not get the water to the same discharge for 24 hours so they need a reservoir at their respective homes. Reuse of water for various purposes in Indonesia for example, is at Senayan City, Pandeglang, Salman Mosque and Daarut Tauhid Boarding School.
Waste water treatment system in Indonesia uses communal and individual system. In the individual waste water systems, waste water, there is processed in a simple septic tank, anaerobic filter and baffled and there is directly discharged into the environment. for the communal system, there is a pipeline network that connects to a wastewater treatment. Off site sanitation / wastewater treatment in Indonesia communal serve only 2.33% of Indonesian people, especially in urban areas. Approximately 71.06% of the people using the individual processing systems and the rest is discharged into the environment.